It's related with muscle motor function. If the serebellum is removed surgically, cordinated muscle contraction is disturbed and maintanence of body posture disappear. The serebellar structure is similar to the cortex cerebri. There are gray matter on the surface but white matter in the inner side. The surface have many small invagination that is called as gyri as like cerebri. Serebellum receives impulses from the perphery by the sipinocerebellar tract and from some nuclei from brain stem and also fibers from motor cortex.
Forebrain is divided into the diencephelon and thelencephelon. the dorsal portion of the diencephelon is the epithalamus, the lateral portion the thalamus and the ventral portion is the hypothalans.
The epithalamus contains a small nucleus that transmits olfactory information to the brain stem, the pineal and parapineal bodies, and the anterior choroid plexus.
In lower vertebrates epithalamus is well developed and importantt for the transmission of impulses from periphery to cerebral cortex, but in mammales most of sensory information is transferred to the cerebral cortex via thalamus.
Rheobase is the lowest current that will initiate an action potential. the chronaxie is the maximum stimulus duration when the current is 2X reheobase. Rheobase and chronaxie define the shape of the strength-duration relationship. A slowly inceasing depolarizing current may not initiate an action potential even though it may rise to an intensity much greater than threshold level. A maintained depolarization causes the threshold to rise towards 0 mV. This called as accomadation.
It is not possible to elicit a second action potential after brief period of first action potential. This period is called as absolute refractory period. in this period all Na channels again can be aplicable for activation, this period is called as relative refractory period.
first one, in the central nervous system, myelin is formed by the oligodendrocytes. One oligodendrocyte can contribute to the myelin sheath of several axons.
myelination II: in the peripheral nervous system, myelin is formed by Schwann cells. Each Schwann cell associates with only one axon, when forming a myelinated intermode.
The organization of the vertebrate nervous system is different from invertebrates. Vertebrates have a well-organized hollow dorsal nervous system. The central nervous system included a brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system comprise peripheral nerves extending from spinal cord and peripheral ganglia. nervous
If transmitter opens a cation influx, the resulting depolarization is called an Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential (EPSP). These individual potentials are sub-threshold. If the transmitter opens an anion influx, the resulting hyperpolarization is called an Inhibitory Post synaptic potential (IPSP). All these potentials are additive. ıf some of the synapses are inhibitory in type. The cell produce action potential according to the algebric some of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. The neurotransmitter GABA causes postsynaptic inhibition because its rceptor gated, postsynaptic membrane channels allow CL-flow.
Repitative stimulation of postsynaptic nerve from single synaptic region can also produce action potential. This kind of summation is called as temporal summation. Sometimes even the cell do not produce action potential, it can be come close to threshold potential , this is called as faciltation. Synaptic depression or fatique occur due to the depletion of synaptic vesicles as a result of repitetive stimulation. Continuous stimulation may led to the decline of postsynaptic potential.